Carbon nanotubes

  

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Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes

Several methods for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes have been developed. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) have been traditionally prepared by the arc evaporation of graphite [1]. Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were first synthesized by metal-catalyzed dc-arcing of graphite electrodes [2,3]. The graphite anode is normally filled with metal powders such as Fe, Co or Ni and pure graphite is used as the cathode. Large quantities of SWNTs can be obtained by using a mixture of 1 at.% of Y and 4.2 at.% of Ni [4]. SWNTs have also been synthesized by the condensation of a laser-vaporized carbon-nickel-cobalt mixture at 1200 oC [5]. The decomposition of hydrocarbons over small metal catalyst has been the focus area of research in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes due to their scalability and ease of synthesis [6-8]. One of the innovations in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is the use of organometallic precursors such as ferrocene, which act as a source of the metal as well as of carbon [9].

References:

  1. S. Iijima, Nature, 354, 6348 (1991).
  2. S. Iijima, T. Ichihashi, Nature, 363, 603 (1993).
  3. D. S. Bethune, C. H. Kiang, M. S. de Vries, G. Gorman, R. Savoy, J. Vazques,R. Beyers, Nature, 363, 605 (1993).
  4. C. Journet, W. K. Maser, P. Bernier, A. Loiseau, M. Lamy de la Chapelle, S. Lefrant, P. Deniard, R. Lee, J. E. Fischer, Nature, 388, 756 (1997).
  5. A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert, G. E. Scuseria, D. Tomnek, J. E. Fischer, R. E. Smalley, Science, 273, 483 (1996).
  6. Y. Gogotsi, J. A. Libera, J. Mater. Res., 15, 2591 (2000).
  7. M. J. Yacaman, M. M. Yoshida, L. Rendon, T. G. Santiesteban, Appl. Phys. Lett., 62, 202 (1993).
  8. V. Ivanov, J. B. Nagy, Ph. Lambin, A. Lucas, X. B. Zhang, D. Bernaerts, G. Van Tendeloo, A. Amelinckx, J. Van Landuyt, Chem. Phys. Lett., 223, 329 (1994).
  9. C. N. R Rao, A. Govindaraj, Acc. Chem. Res., 35,998 (2002).

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