Power production from combustion of fossil fuels releases CO2, which is mainly responsible for global warming and cause severe problems to both ecology and human beings. The rise in atmospheric CO2 levels must be slowed or reverted to avoid undesirable climate change. Materials capable of cost-effective CO2 conversion into chemicals and fuels would help in stabilizing the atmospheric levels of greenhouse gas. The potential products can be obtained with CO2 conversion are formic acid, methanol, CO and ethylene. At present there is no commercially viable process for the conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals and the current state-of-the-art materials are expensive, which limit commercial implementation. For example, although several materials are known for the electrochemical conversion of CO2, until now only precious metals such as Au and Ag could promote this process with Faradaic efficiency more than 80%. Because of the durability and poisoning effect many efficient catalysts are far beyond commercialization. We strategically focus on the synthesis of nanomaterials in various forms (metals, bimetals, alloys, intermetallic, core shell etc.) and study their efficiency in the photochemical, electrochemical and heterogeneous conversion of CO2 into fuel and chemicals. The reaction mechanism and kinteics are completely understood by a detailed electronic structure calculations. Our materials and methods are expected to have the potential to convert waste CO2 to produce gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, and industrial chemicals.